Английски език

Граматика & Уроци

 

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SOME AND ANY

Tom and Alex are two friends who share an apartment in San Francisco. One Saturday afternoon they decide to invite some friends for dinner.

TOM: Lets call John and Anna and invite them here tonight!
ALEX: Thats a great idea!
TOM: We can make a salad and buy a bottle of wine.
ALEX: Lets see what we have in the fridge.
TOM: We have some tomatoes.
ALEX: I love tomato salad. Have we got any olives?
TOM: Yes, we have some olives and some cheese, but we dont have any onions.
ALEX: Ok, lets go buy some green peppers and some cucumbers. We can make Greek salad.
TOM: And some wine too!!
ALEX: Lets go!

Нови думи:

to share - поделям, деля си, споделям
to decide – решавам
to invite - каня, поканвам
to buy – купувам
fridge = refridgerator – хладилник
olives – маслини
onion – лук
peppers – чушки
cucumbers – краставици
Greek salad - Гръцка салата

В английския език има голям брой неопределителни местоимения. Едни он най-често използваните сред тях са some, any и none
И some и any могат да означават някой, някое, някоя, накои, няколко, малко според различната си употреба и се употребяват както с бройни, така и с небройни съществителни.
Some се използва най-вече в положителни разказни изречения, а any - във въпросителни и отрицателни изречения (и тогава означава никой, никое, никоя, николко, никак):

There is some milk in the cup. There are no cups in the cupboard.
Is there any milk in the cup? - Yes, there is some. No, there isnt any.
There isnt any milk in the cup.
Are there any cups in the cupboard? - Yes, there are some. No, there arent any.
There arent any cups in the cupboard.

Когато обаче въпросът е във вид на покана или молба, вместо some се употребява any:
Would you like some company?
Would you like some ice in your whiskey?
Will you please lend me some money?

В отрицателните изречения трябва да се съблюдава правилото за двойното отрицание - т.е. отрицанието трябва да бъде едно - да е включено или в глагола, или в неопределителното местоимение. Местоименията any и no имат еднакво значение (никой, никое, никоя, николко, никак), но се употребяват по различен начин. Any се използва в изречения, в които отрицателната частица е включена в глагола, а no - в изречения, в които глаголът е в положителна форма. :

There isnt any cheese in the fridge. There is no cheese in the fridge.
There arent any bottles of beer. There are no bottles of beer. 

ПРИМЕРИ:
I have some friends in the USA.
Do you have any friends in the USA? 
Yes, I have some. No, I don;t have any.
I dont have any friends in the USA.
I have no friends in the USA.

He has some money in the bank.
Does he have any money in the bank?
Yes, he has some. No, he doesnt have any.
He doesnt have any money in the bank.
He has no money in the bank.

УПРАЖНЕНИЯ:
Поставете some,any или no:

1.Ann has ......... candies in her room.
2. She doesnt know ........... people from her neighbourhood.
3. She has ....... money because he always spends them on clothes.
4. Do you have .......... idea when the plane lands?
5. My brother cant speak ......... German.
6. He doesnt want to give me .........help.
7. I usually drink ........ cofee in the morning.
8. There are ...... tomatoes in the fridge, because we dont like tomato salad.
9. I have ........ good news for you.
10. He doesnt have ........ books on astronomy. 

 

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